Update: Therapeutic options in multiple sclerosis

Care of the patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is becoming increasingly complex, with new symptomatic therapies (e.g., dalfampridine), enhanced use of disease-modifying therapies that are potentially both more efficacious and more risky (e.g., natalizumab, rituximab) than “standard” immunomodulators, the advent of oral disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) (e.g., fingolimod, cladribine, teriflunomide, laquinimod), and the possibility of regenerative or reparative therapies (e.g., stem cells, neuroprogenitor cells, antibodies to leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin (Ig) domain containing NOGO receptor interacting protein-1, i.e., anti-LINGO therapies). All of this is happening in the context of a suggestion that MS may fundamentally result from aberrant venous flow, so-called chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), and a similarly fundamental pathologic discussion of the relationship between inflammation and degeneration over time in patients with MS. Noting the difficulty of choosing among many options, we present discussions of 5 new topics relevant to patients with MS and their neurologists in 2010 (Full text).


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